Resources
Bibiliography and Abstracts of RIAS Studies through 2014

Following are abstracts of RIAS studies, listed in alphabetical order by first author. Just click on a letter below to view the abstracts by the author's last name. Monographs and doctoral theses have their own page.

A     B     C     D     E     F     G     H     I     J     K     L     M     N     O     P     Q     R     S

T     U     V     W     X     Y     Z     Monographs & Theses

P

Paasche-Orlow M, Roter D. The communication patterns of internal medicine and family practice physicians. J Am Board Fam Pract. 2003 Nov-Dec;16(6):485-93.
(Primary Care, United States)
BACKGROUND: Although differences between Internal Medicine (IM) and Family Practice (FP) physicians have been examined in terms of care outcomes and cost, there have been few studies of specialty differences in physician-patient communication. METHODS: In 1995, 277 clinical encounters with 29 full-time, community-based FP physicians and 287 clinical encounters with 30 full-time, community based IM physicians were audiotaped. Communication was evaluated with the Roter Interaction Analysis System to reflect data gathering, patient education and counseling, rapport building, partnership building, verbal dominance, and patient-centeredness. Patient satisfaction was measured with an exit questionnaire. RESULTS: IM clinicians ask more biomedical questions (P =.02). FP clinicians engage in more psychosocial discussion (P =.02) and tend to engage in more emotionally supportive exchanges such as empathy and reassurance (P =.06). Significant interaction effects show differential treatment of patient subgroups by specialty; FP physicians were more verbally dominant with female patients (P < .01) and more patient-centered in their communication style with minority patients (P =.03). Although patient satisfaction was similar for IM and FP, satisfaction was more closely linked to measures of rapport and patient-centeredness for patients of FP physicians than for patients of internists. CONCLUSIONS: The current work adds insight into FP and IM differences in both physician-patient communication and predictors of patient satisfaction.

Pahal JS, Li HZ. The dynamics of resident-patient communication: data from Canada. Commun Med. 2006;3(2):161-70.
(Resident Training, Canada)
The objectives of this study were to examine patterns of resident-patient communication and the relationship between resident patterns of speech with patient satisfaction. Forty consultations, ten in each of the four gender combinations (male resident/male patient, male resident/female patient, female resident/female patient, female resident/male patient) were audiotaped and microanalyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Several findings depart significantly from previous studies with physician-only or physician-resident-mixed samples. First, the average length of the 40 consultations was 19.5 minutes, 11.3 minutes longer than consultations in a physician-only sample drawn in the same clinic previously. Second, male residents engaged in twice as much psychosocial talk as female residents and conducted longer consultations. Third, residents asked 80% of the total questions while patients asked 20% of the questions. Previous studies with physician-only or physician-resident-mixed samples reported that physicians ask 89-99% of the total questions. Finally, patients' overall satisfaction and communication satisfaction were negatively correlated with residents' positive talk, which constitutes 31% of a given resident's total utterances. In the study conducted in the same clinic with a physician-only sample, physician positive talk was 26% and physician positive talk was not correlated with patient satisfaction. Is this a signal that residents should reduce the amount of positive talk? Apparently more studies with resident-only samples are needed to answer this and other unanswered questions in the field to offer directives to resident training.

Pawlikowska T, Zhang W, Griffiths F, van Dalen J, van der Vleuten C. Verbal and non-verbal behavior of doctors and patients in primary care consultations - How this relates to patient enablement. Patient Educ Couns. 2011 May 26. (Primary Care, United Kingdom)
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between observable patient and doctor verbal and non-verbal behaviors and the degree of enablement in consultations according to the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI) (a patient-reported consultation outcome measure). METHODS: We analyzed 88 recorded routine primary care consultations. Verbal and non-verbal communications were analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) and the Medical Interaction Process System, respectively. Consultations were categorized as patient- or doctor-centered and by whether the patient or doctor was verbally dominant using the RIAS categorizations. RESULTS: Consultations that were regarded as patient-centered or verbally dominated by the patient on RIAS coding were considered enabling. Socio-emotional interchange (agreements, approvals, laughter, legitimization) was associated with enablement. These features, together with task-related behavior explain up to 33% of the variance of enablement, leaving 67% unexplained. Thus, enablement appears to include aspects beyond those expressed as observable behavior. CONCLUSION: For enablement consultations should be patient-centered and doctors should facilitate socio-emotional interchange. Observable behavior included in communication skills training probably contributes to only about a third of the factors that engender enablement in consultations. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: To support patient enablement in consultations, clinicians should focus on agreements, approvals and legitimization whilst attending to patient agendas.

Peck BM. Age-related differences in doctor-patient interaction and patient satisfaction. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2011;2011:137492.
(Geriatrics, Patient Satisfaction, United States)
Background. Relatively little is known about patient characteristics associated with doctor-patient interaction style and satisfaction with the medical visit. Objective. The primary study objectives are to assess: whether doctors interact in a more or less patient-centered style with elderly patients and whether patient age moderates the relationship between interaction style and satisfaction, that is, whether elderly patients are more or less satisfied with patient-centered medical encounters. Methods. We collected pre- and post-visit questionnaire data from 177 patients at a large family medicine clinic. We audiotaped the encounters between doctors and patients. Patient-centered interaction style was measured from coding from the audiotapes of the doctor-patient interactions. Patient satisfaction was measured using the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. Results. We found physicians were more likely to have patient-centered encounters with patients over age 65. We also found patient age moderated the association between interaction style and patient satisfaction: older patients were more satisfied with patient-centered encounters. Conclusion. Patient age is associated with style of interaction, which is, in turn, associated with patient satisfaction. Understanding the factors and processes by which doctors and patients interact has the potential to improve many facets of health care delivery.

Pelicano-Romano J, Neves MR, Amado A, Cavaco AM. Do community pharmacists actively engage elderly patients in the dialogue? Results from pharmaceutical care consultations. Health Expect. 2013 Dec 17.
(Pharmacy, Geriatrics, Portugal)
BACKGROUND: Little is known about community pharmacist-patient interaction within a consultation room, particularly in terms of patient activation and engagement. OBJECTIVE: To explore pharmacists' communication and attitudes while providing advanced medication-related services. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study, using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) framework, to analyse a sample of audio-recorded pharmaceutical care consultations with elderly patients. RESULTS: Around 15.0 per cent of pharmacists' utterances and 3.6 per cent of patients' were related to engagement with the latter during the exchange. To improve health outcomes, such as adherence to a therapeutic regime, pharmacists should augment patients' participation in the dialogue, facilitating concerns and disclosure of doubts, thus improving correct medication use behaviour.

Peltenburg M, Fischer JE, Bahrs O, van Dulmen S, van den Brink-Muinen A. The unexpected in primary care: a multicenter study on the emergence of unvoiced patient agenda. Ann Fam Med. 2004 Nov-Dec;2(6):534-40
(Primary Care, Switzerland)
PURPOSE: Within the time constraints of a typical physician-patient encounter, the full patient agenda will rarely be voiced. Unexpectedly revealed issues that were neither on the patient's list of items for discussion nor anticipated by the physician constitute an emerging agenda. We aimed to quantify the occurrence rate of emerging agendas in primary care practices and to explain the variation between patients and practices. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study involved 182 primary care practices in 9 European cultural regions. Consecutive primary care consultations were videotaped and rated. Patients completed preconsultation and postconsultation questionnaires assessing their expectations and perceived care. Emerging agenda, determined by using 11-item preconsultation and postconsultation questionnaires, was defined as care perceived by the patient to be in addition to expected care, after adjustment for cultural variations of patient expectations. RESULTS: For consultations involving 2,243 patients (mean age, 44.8 years, 58.4% women), every sixth (15.8%) consultation revealed emerging psychosocial agenda. Biomedical agenda emerged in 14.5% of the consultations. Rates for unmet expectations were 13.6% and 10.3%, respectively, for psychosocial and biomedical problems. Practices showed considerable heterogeneity of occurrence of emerging agenda (biomedical, median 13%, range 0%-67%; psychosocial, median 14%, range 0%-53%). After controlling for region and patient baseline characteristics, variables significantly related to emerging agenda were patient expectations and biomedical or psychosocial discourse content, but not consultation time or sex of the patient. A large proportion of the variance attributable to physicians remained concealed in a practice dummy variable (explaining up to 8% of the variance). CONCLUSION: Unexpected agenda emerges in every sixth to seventh consultation in outpatient primary care visits.

Pieterse AH, van Dulmen AM, Ausems MG, Beemer FA, Bensing JM. Communication in cancer genetic counselling: does it reflect counselees' previsit needs and preferences? Br J Cancer. 2005 May 9;92(9):1671-8.
(Oncology, Genetics Counseling, Netherlands)
This study sought to describe counsellor-counselee interaction during initial cancer genetic counselling consultations and to examine whether the communication reflects counselees' previsit needs. A total of 130 consecutive counselees, referred mainly for breast or colon cancer, completed a questionnaire before their first appointment at a genetic clinic. Their visit was videotaped. Counselee and counsellor verbal communications were analysed and initiative to discuss 11 genetics-specific conversational topics was assessed. The content of the visit appeared relatively standard. Overall, counselees had a stronger psychosocial focus than counsellors. Counsellors directed the communication more and initiated the discussion of most of the topics assessed. Counselees did not appear to communicate readily in a manner that reflected their previsit needs. Counsellors provided more psychosocial information to counselees in higher need for emotional support, yet did not enquire more about counselees' specific concerns. New counselees may be helped by receiving more information on the counselling procedure prior to their visit, and may be advised to prepare the visit more thoroughly so as to help them verbalise more their queries during the visit.

Pieterse AH, van Dulmen AM, Beemer FA, Bensing JM, Ausems MG. Cancer genetic counseling: communication and counselees' post-visit satisfaction, cognitions, anxiety, and needs fulfillment. J Genet Couns. 2007 Feb;16(1):85-96.
(Cancer, Genetics Counseling, Netherlands)
Little is known about the relation between communication during cancer genetic counseling and outcome. We assessed associations between counselor-counselee communication and counselee satisfaction, cognitions, anxiety, and fulfillment of major needs, corrected for pre-visit levels as appropriate. In total 171 consecutive new counselees, mainly referred for breast or colon cancer, received pre- and post-visit questionnaires assessing needs/fulfillment, knowledge, perceived control (PPC), anxiety (STAI), and satisfaction. Initial visits were videotaped and counselor eye gaze was recorded. Verbal communication was rated by Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Asking more medical questions was associated with lower satisfaction levels. Receiving more medical information was related to higher correct knowledge scores, higher reported fulfillment of some needs, and unrelated to perceptions of control. Receiving more psychosocial information and longer counselor eye gaze were related to higher anxiety scores. Longer visits were related to higher correct knowledge scores. Providing medical information appears the most powerful communication aspect to increase counselee satisfaction and address needs. More research is needed on how to address adequately (emotional) needs and increase feelings of control.

Pieterse AH, van Dulmen AM, Beemer FA, Ausems MG, Bensing JM. Tailoring communication in cancer genetic counseling through individual video-supported feedback: A controlled pretest-posttest design. Patient Educ Couns. 2006 Mar;60(3):326-35.
(Genetics Counseling, Netherlands)
OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of a 1-day individual video-feedback training for cancer genetic counselors on the interaction during initial visits. Feedback was intended to help counselors make counselees' needs more explicit and increase counselors' sensitivity to these. METHODS: In total 158 counselees, mainly referred for breast or colon cancer and visiting 1 of 10 counselors, received a pre- and post-visit questionnaire assessing needs (fulfillment). Visits were videotaped, counselor eye gaze was assessed, and verbal communication was analyzed by Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) adapted to the genetic setting. Halfway the study, five counselors were trained. RESULTS: Trained counselors provided more psychosocial information, and with trained counselors emotional consequences of DNA-testing was more often discussed. Counselees seen by a trained counselor considered their need for explanations on (emotional) consequences of counseling as better fulfilled. Unexpectedly, counselees' contribution to the interaction was smaller with trained counselors. CONCLUSION: Feedback appeared to result in greater emphasis on psychosocial issues, without lengthening the visit. However, counselors did not become more verbally supportive in other ways than by providing information. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: A 1 day individual training appears effective to some extend; increased opportunities for watching and practicing behavioral alternatives and arranging consolidating sessions may improve training results.

Pires CM, Cavaco AM. Communication between health professionals and patients: review of studies using the RIAS (Roter Interaction Analysis System) method. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2014;60(2):156-72.
(Interaction Analysis, Portugal)
Objective: Systematic review of studies that investigate the communication between patients and health professionals with the application of the RIAS methodology. Methods: Keyword Roter Interaction Analysis System was searched in the following bibliographic resources: Academic Search Complete, Current Contents, ISI Proceedings, PubMed, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Web of Science, RCAAP, Solo and the official RIAS site. Selection period: 2006 to 2011. Studies were selected using multicriteria dichotomous analysis and organized according to PRISMA. Results: Identification of 1,262 articles (455 unrepeated). 34 articles were selected for analysis, distributed by the following health professions: family medicine and general practitioners (14), pediatricians (5), nurses (4), geneticists (3), carers of patients with AIDS (2), oncologists (2), surgeons (2), anesthetists (1) and family planning specialists (1). The RIAS is scarcely used and publicized within the scope of healthcare in Portuguese speaking countries. Discussion: Main themes studied include the influence of tiredness, anxiety and professional burnout on communication and the impact of specific training actions on professional activities. The review enabled the identification of the main strengths and weaknesses of synchronous and dyadic verbal communication within the provision of healthcare. Conclusion: Scientific investigation of the communication between health professionals and patients using RIAS has produced concrete results. An improvement is expected in health outcomes through the application of the RIAS.

Pourhabib S, Chessex C, Murray J, Grace SL. Elements of patient-health-care provider communication related to cardiovascular rehabilitation referral. J Health Psychol. 2014 Apr 16.
(Communication Skills, Cardiology, Interaction Analysis, Canada)
Cardiovascular rehabilitation has been designed to decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease. This study described (1) patient-health-care provider interactions regarding cardiovascular rehabilitation and (2) which discussion elements were related to patient referral. This was a prospective study of cardiovascular patients and their health-care providers. Discussion utterances were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Discussion between 26 health-care providers and 50 patients were recorded. Cardiovascular rehabilitation referral was related to greater health-care provider interactivity (odds ratio = 2.82, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-7.86) and less patient concern and worry (odds ratio = 0.64, 95% confidence interval = 0.45-0.89). Taking time for reciprocal discussion and allaying patient anxiety may promote greater referral.

Pourhabib S, Kentner AC, Grace SL. The impact of patient-healthcare provider discussions on enrollment in cardiovascular rehabilitation. J Rehabil Med. 2014 Sep 30;46(9):924-31.
(Canada, Cardiology, Communication Skills)
OBJECTIVE: Secondary prevention programs such as cardiovascular rehabilitation significantly decrease the burden of cardiovascular disease, yet are under-used. The most successful strategy to promote cardiovascular rehabilitation utilization is systematic referral with a patient-provider discussion. This study investigated: (i) the elements of patient-provider discussions related to patient cardiovascular rehabilitation enrollment, and (ii) the frequency and correlates of these discussion elements. DESIGN/PARTICIPANTS: This was a prospective study of cardiovascular patients and their healthcare providers. Discussions about "secondary prevention" were audio-recorded. Utterances were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Two months later, cardiovascular rehabilitation enrollment was ascertained. RESULTS: Discussions between 26 healthcare providers and 50 patients were recorded, of whom 27 (54.0%) enrolled in cardiovascular rehabilitation. Participants were significantly more likely to enroll in cardiovascular rehabilitation when their healthcare providers offered less reassurance and optimism (odds ratio (OR) = 0.81), and when the patient asked more questions related to lifestyle (OR = 4.98). These were not common. CONCLUSION: While caution is warranted due to the number of comparisons undertaken such that associations observed may be chance associations, these novel findings suggest that not overstating the beneficial effects of acute treatment, and allowing patients more time to ask questions about needed lifestyle changes should be investigated in future research.

Price EG, Windish DM, Magaziner J, Cooper LA. Assessing validity of standardized patient ratings of medical students' communication behavior using the Roter interaction analysis system. Patient Educ Couns. 2008 Jan;70(1):3-9.
(Standardized Patients, United States)
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to examine concurrent validity of standardized patient (SP) ratings of second year medical students' communication skills with the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS). METHODS: We designed An Integrated Medical Encounter (AIME), to teach second year medical students the link between communication and clinical reasoning with emphasis placed on understanding the connection between biomedical and psychosocial aspects of patient care. We randomized 120 students to intervention (AIME) and control groups (non-AIME). Students completed two post-intervention SP encounters which were videotaped and coded using RIAS. SPs used a 30-item checklist to rate students' communication behaviors. RESULTS: There were no differences between AIME and non-AIME students in age, ethnicity, gender, or college major; however, more AIME students reported prior health professional work. SPs rated AIME students' rapport-building skills higher (mean [S.E.]: 4.1 [0.15] vs. 3.9 [0.15], p=0.05); however, there were no differences in data gathering, patient education/counseling. RIAS demonstrated that AIME students more frequently used rapport-building statements (60.4 [2.7] vs. 52.1 [2.8], p=0.03). CONCLUSION: The RIAS confirmed SP ratings of differences in AIME and non-AIME students' rapport-building skills. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Future studies in medical education should further examine the minimum number of SP ratings needed to effectively evaluate communication skills curricula when resources are limited.

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